Gwadar city of province Balochistan has an ancient history as early as the bronze age. Gwadar in Balochi language means "Gateway of Winds". The ancient name of Balochistan is Makran which derived from the ancient Persian phrase "Mahi khoran" and the Persian empires ruled on Balochistan region. Gwadar was Conquered by the Persian Empire "Cyrus the great". Alexander 's Admiral Nearchus While homeward march stated that " Travelling along Makran coast it was dry, surrounded by mountains and inhabited by "fish eaters". After Alexander's general Seleucus Nicator, the region was ruled by Mauryan around 303 BCE after peace agreement of Seleucus with Emperor Chandragupta and was ceded to the Mauryans.
Balochistan region remained on the sidelines of Muslim history for a long time. Arab-Muslim caliph Hazrat Umar (second caliph) instructed war commander Hakim bin Amr al Taghlabi to capture the port and it should be an easternmost frontier of Muslim dominions. Makran was captured in 643 AD Hakim bin Amr al Taghlabi. In 711 A.D Muslim Army under the supervision of Mohammad Bin Qasim captured the town of Gwadar. And with the passage of time the region was contested and attacked by various powers. Almost for two centuries, Balochistan was ruled by the various Baloch tribes. Ottoman Admiral Syedi Ali Reis visited in the 1550s and mentioned in his book "Mirat ul Memalik" (the Mirror of Countries) published in 1557. Syedi Reis stated that " the inhabitants of Gwadar were Baloch and tribe chief was Malik Jelaleddin, son of Malik Dinar. In the 15th Century, Portuguese conquered various parts of subcontinent and OMAN. Gwadar was attacked by the Portuguese leader Vasco de Gama but under the Baloch commander, Mir Ismaheel Baloch, Portuguese were defeated. Afterwards, Portuguese looted and set the coastal areas of Gwadar on fire but failed to capture the Gwadar. Cannons of the Portuguese army were found lying near the Central Jail of Gwadar, heirless. Mir Ismaheel Baloch grave is founded near the Moutain of Batal Gwadar. The grave was constructed by Mir Ismaheel Baloch himself during his life. Mir Ismaheel died in 873 Hijri.
In 1784, the ruler of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch granted suzerainty of Gwadar to the defeated ruler of Muscat "Taimur Sultan". When the Sultan of Muscat regain and captured Muscat, he continued his rule in Gwadar by appointing a "Wali" (Governor). sultan of Muscat ordered Wali (Governor) to build a fort on the best-safeguarded side of Gwadar, while telegraph lines were extended in the era of British Empire. Sultan ordered Wali to subjugate the nearby coastal town of ChahBahr in Iran. In the 18th Century, Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch captured Gwadar after defeating the Gichki Baloch as well Kalat Khanate. After realizing that maintaining control in Gwadar will be difficult without the support of Gichki tribe, Mir Nasir made an agreement with Gichki tribe leader in which Gichki tribe will maintain administrative control of the area in return for furnishing half of the collected revenue to Mir Noori Naseer Khan.
This agreement proceeded till 1783. When Saiad Sultan the ruler of Muscat fell out with his brother asked Mir Noori Naseer Khan for help, Mir handed over Gwadar as part of shared revenues to saiad Sultan with understanding that area will be returned to Kalat. When Saiad sultan acquires throne in 1797 but never returned Gwadar enclave to Kalat. So the dispute between heirs of Sultan and Khan of Kalat for possession of Gwadar allowed British Government to intervene. Later on British claimed that area was awarded to Sultan by Mir Nasir. However, declassified documents challenge this claim at that time. Major Goldsmith visited in 1861, from the year 1863 to 1879, Gwadar remained as the headquarter of British Assistant political agent. Gwadar was as port post and telegraph in British regime. Sultan remained as sovereign of Gwadar until negotiations were held with Government of Pakistan in 1950. Both Gwadar and Pasni ports had been ports of call (the port used to load and unload cargo or supplies for steamers British Steam Navigation Company. Gwadar was linked to Karachi through the telegraphic link in 1863. Telegraph offices were opened by the British government in Gwadar and Pasni. Later on, post offices were operated in 1894 at Gwadar and at Pasni in 1903 by the British empire.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, areas except for Gwadar joined Balochistan states union in 1948. Chieftains of Lasbela, Makran, Kharan and Kalat after few months acceded to Pakistan. In 1954 Pakistan government conducted a geological survey of Gwadar with help United States Geological Survey and it was observed as the deepwater port. So, the government of Pakistan started negotiations and requested the Sultan of Muscat and Oman for granting accession of Gwadar to Pakistan. After 4 years of negotiations, Pakistan purchased the Gwadar enclave from Sultan of Oman on 7 September 1958, for USD $3 million and it was given the status of Tehsil of Balochistan. Gwadar port officially became part of Pakistan on 8 December 1958, after 174 years of Omani rule. Prime Minister Malik Feroze Khan announced the news of Gwadar's accession to Pakistan.An important agreement was defined between Pakistan and Oman
The Agreement had two important clauses:
Gwadar, one of the deepest sea ports in the world, will prove to be the busiest center for import and export and to directly hit the Markets of three main continents; Asia, Europe and Africa. Gwadar will be the hub of business activites as it will also connect with Central Asia,Gulf States,Afghanistan and Iran. So it has attained the status of key strategic and commercial sea port. It is anticipated that the GDP rate of Pakistan shall rise up by 50% courtesy Gwadar Port shortly.
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is a framework of regional connectivity with China. CPEC is almost 3,200 Kilo meters in length, it connects Kashgar in China to the Gwadar port. It will benefit China and Pakistan but will have positive impact on Iran, Afghanistan, India, Central Asian Republic, and the region due to its strategical importance. Pakistan shares a 1200 km long Coastline with Arabian sea, which connects the strategic oil line of Persian Gulf with the Indian Ocean.
Currently, Pakistan has two main International Sea ports